Study Abroad Programs: Elements of Effective International Student and Faculty Exchange Programs

Pam Martin (CRB-09-006, May, 2009)
As part of Assembly Concurrent Resolution 146 (Solorio), the California Research Bureau was asked to report on the programmatic and funding elements of an effective international student and faculty exchange program, including good practices nationally, with an emphasis on public higher education institutions in California and Mexico. The CRB identified five distinct elements: a) an assessment of demand for a program; b) the establishment of working relationships among institutions and stakeholders; c) written policies stating a clear commitment to academic goals, transparency, and communication; d) identification of long-term funding streams; and e) a plan for increasing enrollment. The report includes an overview of California-Mexico student and faculty study abroad programs currently being offered in California's public universities and community colleges.
PDF version (1MB) is available online.


Inventory of Mexico Related Projects Conducted by California State Agencies

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-04-011, November, 2004)
This report identifies California government activities related to issues of common interest and concern to California and Mexico. The survey describes over 100 programs operated by 15 California state departments and agencies, and 8 boards and commissions.

PDF version (651KB) is available online.


Undocumented Immigrants: An Annotated Bibliography

Alicia Bugarin, Steven DeBry and Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-05-006, November, 2005)
The California Research Bureau has received a number of requests concerning the number of unauthorized immigrants in California and the costs and benefits of providing services to these immigrants. This annotated bibliography, divided in two sections provides a list of various articles, documents and books on the subject. The first section of this briefing note shows an estimate of the geographic distribution of unauthorized immigrants across California counties in 2000 and 2005. The second section is an annotated bibliography on recent research concerning the size of the unauthorized immigrant population (in California and the United States) as well as the costs and benefits of providing services to both illegal and legal immigrants.

PDF version (805KB) is available online.



Faculty, Managers, and Administrators in the University of California, 1996 to 2002

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D., and Belinda Reyes, Ph.D. (CRB-04-009, July, 2004)
This report analyzes staffing patterns in the University of California system. There are six chapters, one for each of the following group of individuals: UC tenured and tenure track faculty (Full, Associate, and Assistant Professors), Full Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, Lecturers (Permanent and Temporary), Managers and Academic Administrators. Each chapter examines the changes occurring for each of these occupational groups from 1996 to 2002. The analysis covers full-time or part-time status, the decade in which staff were hired, gender, ethnicity, academic discipline, campus, median monthly earnings, and the newly hired.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.



For-Profit Postsecondary Educational Institutions: Overview of Accreditation and State and Federal Oversight

Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA (CRB-04-010, July, 2004)
Postsecondary education in California is a diverse system that includes public community colleges and universities, private nonprofit colleges and universities, and private proprietary/for-profit career colleges. Private for-profit institutions – businesses that prepare graduates for jobs and career advancement – are growing and serving an increasing number of adult students. The for-profit sector ranges from small owner-operated schools to an increasing number of large higher education systems that are owned and operated by publicly traded for-profit corporations, many with multiple campuses in several states. This report describes the for-profit educational institutions in California. It presents an overview of the external quality review system – a complex system that includes a private non-governmental process (accreditation), a state oversight function, and a federal recognition process, all of which address quality and consumer protection. It also includes a historical perspective and a discussion of current trends, issues, and policy implications.
PDF version (827KB) is available online.



Profile of the Young Californian (Age Group 16 to 24): How Has it Changed Over the Last Three Decades?

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-04-008, May, 2004)
This report describes the distribution of young Californians (age 16 to 24) by race/ethnic groups and socio-economic conditions, and compares trends using census data from 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. We found that the proportion of out-of-school and out-of-the labor force young has increased somewhat between 1990 and 2000, particularly for young males 20 to 24. Most of the young neither attending school nor in the labor force are Hispanics, have lower levels of education, and are in the poorer income categories. In 2000, almost 16 percent of the four million young Californians were neither attending school nor in the labor force. In addition, four percent of them were unemployed.
PDF version (907KB) is available online.



Preschool and Childcare Enrollment in California

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. and Patricia de Cos (CRB-04-003, January, 2004)
California currently has 1.17 million children, aged three to five, who are not yet in kindergarten. Close to half of the state's children in this age group are enrolled in preschool/childcare. This report examines the differences in enrollment rates by several variables including: the age of children, the number of parents in a household, the "linguistic isolation" of a family (which refers to the inability of persons aged 14 and older in a home to speak English "very well"), and family income. The last section of the report compares California's enrollment rates to the United States as a whole as well as to other states by ethnic group.

PDF version (444KB) is available online.



California State University Faculty: 1985 to 2001

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-03-006, April, 2003)
The California State University is one of the largest four-year university systems in the country with 23 campuses, over 300,000 students, and over 20,000 faculty members. The State Legislature asked the California Research Bureau to provide information on how the composition of faculty in the California State University (CSU) system is changing over time. Using data provided by CSU, this report presents a profile of the faculty for two points in time, 1985 and 2001. The report also provides year-by-year information on the recruitment and employment of "newly-hired " tenure track faculty (Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor), from 1986 to 2001.

PDF version (783KB) is available online.



Census 2000 Race and Latino Origin in California: Assembly, Senate, and Congressional Districts

Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-v10-n01, February, 2003)
This CRB Note summarizes Census 2000 information about the racial and ethnic composition of California Senate, Assembly and Congressional districts. It reports the number of people falling into different racial and ethnic categories in each district, the percentage of people in each category, and includes tables ranking the districts by their racial and ethnic characteristics. Excel data files are available for downloading.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 4 (314KB), Part 2 of 4 (52KB), Part 3 of 4 (33KB), Part 4 of 4 (34KB) ] is available online.



A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California

[Edited by] Elias Lopez, Ph.D., Ginny Puddefoot, M.P.P., & Patricia Gándara, Ph.D. (CRB-00-003, March, 2000)
This is a follow-up to the first Latino report published in June 1999. This report begins to look at strategies for raising the educational attainment of Latinos in California. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a comprehensive treatise on a particular issue, but rather to get the reader to start thinking about linkages that can occur across the different sectors. We need to not only consider the K-12 and higher education systems, but we must also look to preschools, economic development agencies, the private sector, community based organizations, and any other organization that can work with the community. This paper has 11 different sections and 33 contributors. Some sections include options for further consideration.

PDF version (542KB) is available online.



California Trade Policy

Gus Koehler, Ph.D (CRB-99-013, November, 1999)
The California Trade Policy study describes California's trade activities in the global economy and presents a number of options that could improve its competitiveness. The study shows why trade is important to California's economy, examines why some companies engage in foreign trade, and describes California's state and local trade programs.

PDF version (715,669KB) is available online.



Major Demographic Shifts Occurring in California

Elias Lopez , Ph.D. (CRB-v6-n05, October, 1999)
This paper shows how California has changed demographically since 1940. This paper contends that there are four major demographic shifts occurring in California. These are:
1) Natural increase is becoming the most important source of population growth.
2) Both types of net migration (domestic or international) have been important to the population growth of California. Between 1940 and 1970, net migration from other states was more important than international migration. From 1970 to 1998, the roles were reversed and international migration was the most important of the two.
3) Diversity is increasing at a very fast pace in California and by the year 2000 no ethnic group will be in the majority, i.e., comprise more than 50 percent of the population.
4) The proportion of persons 65 years and over is growing both numerically and proportionately.

PDF version (267KB) is available online.



Educating California's Immigrant Children: An Overview of Bilingual Education

Patricia de Cos (CRB-99-009, July, 1999)
On June 2, 1998, the people of California passed Proposition 227, a voter imposed statutory amendment that substantially altered the manner by which non-English speaking children learn English in California's public schools. This paper examines Proposition 227 and the driving forces behind it. Beyond the initiative itself, this paper discusses California's diverse population, and the dynamics that public schools face each day as they struggle to educate an increasing number of English language learners. This paper also provides a history of language policy, discusses how over time instruction in English became dominant for new immigrants, and presents a summary of why initial bilingual education policies were enacted nationally and in California. Beyond this history, there exists a limited body of literature on instructional programs for English learners. This paper discusses that literature, along with an explanation of the relationship between brain development and second language acquisition and learning, as a possible way to shed light on effective teaching methodologies used for English language learners.

PDF version (1001KB) is available online.



Latinos and Economic Development in California

Elias Lopez, Ph.D., Enrique Ramirez, Ph.D., and Refugio I. Rochin, Ph.D (CRB-99-008, June, 1999)
At the request of Senator Richard Polanco, this paper looks at the educational attainment of Latinos, the largest minority group in California. This group, which comprises 28 percent of the labor force, is growing in numbers and is expected to be the largest group of workers by the year 2025. The earnings and the tax base that they represent therefore are vital to the state's economy. This report alerts policymakers to the fact that the wages of Latinos are not in parity with their numbers; therefore, neither are their tax contributions. Why do Latinos earn significantly less than other ethnic groups in California? Although there are several factors that determine the earnings of a person, the most important reason for Latinos earning relatively less is that they have lower levels of educational attainment. Some might argue that this is a problem of immigrants. This paper shows, however, that the low levels of educational attainment persist for even third generation Latinos. Relying on time alone to take care of the problem does not appear to be the best prescription. This paper looks at the benefits, in terms of earnings and the tax base, of increasing the educational attainment of Latinos, both in the long-term and in the short-term.

PDF version (433KB) is available online.


Farmworkers in California

Alicia Bugarin and Elias Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-98-007, July, 1998)
California is the nation's largest agricultural state. It produces more than 250 different crops valued at nearly $25 billion. Large numbers of recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America and Asia, many with low educational skills, provide a ready labor force. Farmworkers play a significant role in one of the state's most important industries. Their working conditions are difficult; they have low earnings, poor or no health benefits, substandard housing, physically taxing and sometimes unsafe work conditions, and long hours.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (1MB), Part 2 of 2 (1MB) ] is available online.


The Many Faces of Mexico

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D., Alicia Bugarin, David Illig, Ph.D., Hans Johnson, Kirk Knutsen, Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D., Marcus Nieto, and Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-97-001, January, 1997)
The goal of this report is to provide California policymakers with a detailed and succinct background discussion of some of the key demographic, education, health, economic, and political factors that characterize modern Mexico. The report generally does not examine border issues, nor does it feature current events. Whenever possible, the analysis relies on state level data, providing a richer understanding of Mexico's complex and distinct regions. The reader should gain an appreciation of the challenges posed by Mexico's rapidly growing, diverse population, the country's depressed domestic economy and its troubled political environment.

PDF version (401KB) is available online.